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So are you confused? Wondering what is the best balance between structure, improvisation, and creativity? That is why this book should be widely read and discussed!

These chapters speak directly to that confusion: They give us the clarity we need to negotiate the necessary tensions of teaching in an age that must pay more attention to creativity.

Keith Sawyer In the s and s, educational researchers began to study what makes good teachers great. These early studies of teacher expertise focused on the structures that teachers created themselves, as ways to enhance teaching, manage classrooms, and handle problems that may arise.

In addition, many of the structures that guide teaching are mandated by law, administration, or state and federal guidelines.

Modern schools are complex organizations, with relatively rigid structures and bureaucratic and administrative frameworks that constrain what teachers can do in classrooms Olson, Sawyer Ed.

Structure and improvisation in creative teaching pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This book provides a new voice in this debate.

We accept the need for structures in the classroom; after all, research on teacher expertise shows that all good teaching involves structuring elements.

Teachers are rarely allowed to do whatever they want, even in schools committed to constructivist and creative learning.

The challenge facing every teacher and every school is to find the balance of creativity and structure that will optimize student learning. Great teaching involves many structuring elements, and at the same time requires improvisational brilliance.

Balancing structure and improvisation is the essence of the art of teaching. The contributors to this book are deeply concerned about the increasing constraints placed on teachers, because there is a risk that too much additional structure could interfere with the creative improvisation associated with expert teaching.

The increasing use of scripted teaching methods, sometimes called direct instruction, is particularly disturbing, because it risks disrupting the balance associated with great teaching.

Scripted instruction is opposed to constructivist, inquiry-based, and dialogic teaching methods that emphasize creativity in the classroom.

Many educators are concerned that the recent emphasis on standardized testing has resulted in less creative teaching and learning. This book proposes that we view teaching as an improvisational activity.

Conceiving of teaching as improvisation highlights the collaborative and emergent nature of effective classroom practice, helps us understand how curriculum materials relate to classroom practice, and shows why teaching is a creative art.

The best teaching is disciplined improvisation because it always occurs within broad structures and frameworks Sawyer, Like most education scholars, the contributors to this book are committed to the use of constructivist, inquiry-based, and dialogic teaching methods.

Contemporary research in the learning sciences has repeatedly shown the superiority of constructivist methods for teaching the kinds of deeper understanding needed by knowledge workers in the innovation economy Sawyer, a ; constructivist methods result in deeper understanding among learners Bereiter, ; Palincsar, ; Rogoff, ; Sawyer, , d.

Effective constructivist learning must constantly negotiate the learning paradox. In the most effective classrooms, all three paradoxes are balanced through improvisational processes.

To address the teacher paradox, teachers constantly improvise a balance between creativity and constraint. To address the curriculum paradox, teachers adapt textbooks and develop lesson plans that enable students to participate in classroom improvisations.

In great classes, all three paradoxes are addressed through an artful dance; the direction of the class emerges from collaborative improvisation between the teacher and the students.

These scholars noted many obvious similarities between theater and teaching. Effective teachers master many skills that actors must also master.

If a teacher is entertaining and animated, students will be more attentive. If a teacher speaks clearly and projects the voice, students are more likely to hear and understand.

Effective teaching, like theater acting, involves rehearsal, scripting, timing, and stage presence. These writers argued that, like improvising stage actors, teachers are artists who operate on intuition and creativity.

Eisner argued that teaching is an art, in four ways. First, some teachers perform with such skill that students perceive the experience of the classroom to be aesthetic.

This is quite similar to the experience of a skillful symphony orchestra, or a mesmerizing reading of a Shakespearean monologue.

Third, teaching should not be limited to routines; rather, teachers should also creatively respond to the unique contingencies of each classroom.

These writers make the important point that good teaching has an undeniably aesthetic dimension. First, in their advocacy for an aesthetic conception of teaching in opposition to What Makes Good Teachers Great?

This conception of teaching neglects the large body of structures that underlie teacher expertise, and makes teaching seem like an innate, intuitive ability that resists analysis.

This has two unfortunate implications. Thus it provides little insight into how teachers might resolve the learning paradox. Performance is reduced to style as in Timpson and Tobin, Thus it provides little insight into how teachers might resolve the curriculum paradox.

This book extends the teaching-as-performance metaphor by shifting the focus to improvisational performance. Skillful improvisation always resides at the tension between structure and freedom.

Of course, expert teachers have deep intuition and are talented performers, but their performance is rooted in structures and skills.

The improvisation metaphor emphasizes that teachers and students together are collectively generating the classroom performance; in this way, it is consistent with constructivist learning principles rather than the transmission-and-acquisition model implied by earlier performance metaphors.

Teacher Expertise In the s and s, a distinct and parallel group of researchers began to analyze the knowledge structures that underlie expert teaching.

These researchers took an opposite approach from the performance artistry tradition; instead of an intuitive, inexplicable art, these researchers analyzed expert teachers to better understand exactly what they know that makes them good teachers.

Cognitive scientists study the internal mental structures that are responsible for observed human behavior. Much of this research explicitly contrasted novices with experts Ericsson, et al.

In one classic study, novice and expert chess players were shown chess positions that had occurred in the middle of a game.

Experts were much better at remembering the locations of all of the pieces. Emerging from this research, the cognitive elements of expertise were thought to be some combination of learned rules, plans, routines, conceptual frameworks, and schemas.

Greeno In exchange, this tradition of research on teacher expertise largely downplayed teacher improvisation and decision making in the classroom.

The focus on the fixed structures of teacher expertise was valuable, given the tendency in the broader culture to devalue the teaching profession.

Shulman and others presented brilliant examples of teachers demonstrating astonishing expertise. One goal of these researchers was to demonstrate that content knowledge alone is not enough to make a good teacher.

A second goal was to identify a set of skills and competencies that could be used in a national board exam for the teaching profession. The research of Shulman, Berliner, and others, showing that teaching depends on a knowledge base of expertise, was used to argue that teaching was not just an art based on intuition.

The teachers studied seem to be monitoring student involvement as their primary index of smoothness of the instructional process. When interruptions of the instructional process occur, teachers occasionally consider alternatives but hardly ever implement those alternatives.

That is, for various reasons, teachers tend not to change the instructional process in midstream, even when it is going poorly.

These studies observed quite a bit more classroom improvisation than did Clark and Yinger In studies of classroom discourse, Hugh Mehan and Frederick Erickson noted that classroom discourse was often improvisational.

The improvisation metaphor also provides insights into what I have called the curriculum paradox. Procedural professional discretion is simply the ability to devise a coherent curriculum and teach it.

At this level of expertise, teachers are creating curriculum and assessment, not merely implementing them. Novice and expert teachers resolve the curriculum paradox in very different ways, and increasing expertise is reflected by a shift in how this paradox is resolved, as demonstrated by Borko and Livingston This book extends teacher expertise research by acknowledging that both structures and improvisation are essential to good teaching.

Creative Teaching and Learning The study of creative teaching and learning has traditionally been associated with arts educators, but many contemporary scholars have argued that creative learning should be embedded in all subject areas e.

This is not a new idea; one of the core features of the progressive education movement has always been an emphasis on student creativity throughout the curriculum.

One of the most influential modern scholars to study creativity in education was the late E. This test was based on J.

The Torrance test resulted in several scores. The three most important ones are ideational fluency, the sheer number of ideas generated; originality, the number of ideas generated that were not usually suggested by similar-aged students; and flexibility, the number of different categories that the ideas fell into.

First, these scholars emphasized that creativity was not limited to arts classes, but that it was important to all subjects, including mathematics and sciences.

Second, these scholars argued that creativity was not limited to gifted and talented students, but that creative potential should be nurtured in all students.

According to this report, teaching for creativity involves encouraging beliefs and attitudes, motivation and risk taking; persistence; identifying across subjects; and fostering the experiential and experimental.

Creative teaching involves using imagination, fashioning processes, pursuing processes, being original, and judging value. Twenty-first-century skills are thought to include creativity and innovation creative thinking, collaboration, and implementation ; What Makes Good Teachers Great?

The chapters in this book extend this research by providing concrete, specific examples of classrooms and techniques that experienced teachers use to teach creatively, and to teach for creativity.

Extending Previous Research This book is meant to be a contribution to all three of these existing strands of research.

Our shift to improvisation also moves us away from the teacher as a solo performer, to a conception of teacher and students improvising together.

Third, we extend the creative teaching and learning tradition by providing specific theories and empirical examples of exactly what teachers and students do in creative classrooms.

Great teaching involves a knowledge base of rules, plans, and structures that are developed over years, even decades.

And every teacher likewise knows that great teaching is more than this knowledge base of rules, plans, and routines. In other words, how do the fixed structures of expertise become realized in the everyday improvisation of a real-world classroom practice?

Improvisation and creative teaching The chapters in this book are unified by their belief that improvisation provides an invaluable perspective on creative teaching.

Improvisation is generally defined as a performance music, theater, or dance in which the performers are not following a script or score, but are spontaneously creating their material as it is performed.

At the other extreme, in some forms of improvisation, the performers start without any advance framework and create the entire work on stage Sawyer, There is a common misconception that improvisation means anything goes; for example, that jazz musicians simply play from instinct and intuition, without conscious analysis or understanding.

There are parallels between this misconception and the teacher artistry perspective I reviewed earlier. Standards are typically based on the thirty-two-bar pop song, with four subsections of eight bars each.

A standard is outlined on a lead sheet, a shorthand version of the song, with only the melody and the chord changes written. In addition to these shared understandings, most jazz performers also develop their own personal structuring elements.

In private rehearsals, they develop licks, melodic motifs that can be inserted into a solo for a wide range of different songs.

Still, the choice of when to use one of these motifs, and how to weave these fragments with completely original melodic lines, is made on the spot.

In group rehearsals, jazz groups often work out ensemble parts that can be played by the entire band at the end of a solo. Improvisation provides a valuable perspective because both staged improvisation and teaching require an artful balance between structure and creativity.

The study of human action in social context is typically associated with the discipline of sociology, and several scholars have explored the ways in which human social action is improvised Bourdieu []; de Certeau, []; Erickson, ; Sawyer, These scholars all explore the theoretical tension between the structures that guide human action and the creativity and freedom that result in unpredictability.

After all, no one ever acts with complete freedom; in everyday conversation, for example, we talk in ways that are appropriate to our context and to those people with whom we are speaking.

We use idioms to communicate meaning, and we make subtle points using shared cultural references. The chapters in this book, in various combinations and ways, elaborate the improvisation metaphor to foster creative teaching.

Our goal is, ultimately, to develop a new theory of professional pedagogical practice. This volume is a step in that direction. Differences between Teaching and Staged Improvisation The main similarity between staged improvisation and expert teaching is that both are characterized by an unavoidable tension between structure and freedom.

But of course, there are many differences between staged improvisation and classroom teaching. Several of these chapters explore one or more of the following four differences; acknowledging these differences makes the improvisation metaphor more useful to practicing teachers.

This outcome will be assessed. In contrast, staged improvisers do not have the responsibility of causing some mental state change in their audience beyond some broad hope that the audience will be entertained.

Stage improvisers do not have this sort of responsibility. This leads to a very different balance of structure and improvisation in classrooms than in performance genres like jazz.

The balance shifts toward a greater degree of structure and a lesser degree of improvisation. The authors in this book argue that too many classrooms are overly structured and scripted.

Yet the research presented in this book demonstrates that when teachers become skilled at improvisational practice, their students learn more effectively.

In staged improvisation, the audience does not participate actively in the performance; they are relatively passive.

In contrast, decades of research have shown that learning is more effective when students participate actively, and all experienced teachers involve students in some way.

Sawyer has suggested that teachers conceive of their students as fellow ensemble members, in a collective improvisation, rather than as an audience for their performance.

And yet, research shows that these classroom improvisations result in more effective learning when they are carefully guided by structures provided by the teacher.

In staged improv, in contrast, the structures are the collective and emergent property of the community of performers; they can optionally be adopted or rejected by performers.

Some institutional constraints and structures are necessary, but we argue that in too many schools, these structures are overly constraining and prevent creative teaching and learning from occurring.

This results in fundamental power and authority differences. In a theater, in some sense, the performers and the audience members are peers.

In improv theater, part of the reason the audience likes it is that they identify with the performers, they recognize themselves in the performance.

This is less likely to happen in a classroom due to age, status, and expertise differences. The authors in this book argue that creative learning is more likely to occur when the rigid division between teacher and student is somewhat relaxed, creating an environment where teacher and students jointly construct the improvisational flow of the classroom.

Many chapters in this book argue that knowing a bit about how improvisation works in jazz and theater could help teachers creatively foster more effective learning.

Several chapters present examples from jazz or improv theater, and then identify exactly how those performers balance the tensions between structure and freedom, drawing lessons for practicing teachers.

Many of the chapters argue that teachers and students will benefit if they are taught how to participate in theater improvisations themselves. Most major U.

Thus, school districts might consider integrating improv activities in continuing professional development. The improvisation metaphor leads to a new conception of professional expertise.

Creative teachers are experts at disciplined improvisation, balancing the structures of curricula and their own plans and routines, with the constant need to improvisationally apply those structures.

In classrooms with expert teachers, students attain their learning outcomes more quickly and more thoroughly. Students gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the material and retain it longer.

The chapters are grouped according to which paradox is primary, although many of the chapters are relevant to more than one of these paradoxes.

The book concludes with an integrative discussion chapter by Lisa Barker and Hilda Borko. The Teacher Paradox The preceding brief summary of research on teacher expertise shows that experienced teachers have a larger repertoire of structures that they use in the classrooms, yet at the same time, they are more effective improvisers.

She begins by arguing that constructivist learning requires a learning environment in which students are given opportunities to improvise.

In her chapter, she conducted a content analysis of fourteen general-methods textbooks that are widely used in preservice teacher education programs.

She found, first of all, that all fourteen textbooks advocate constructivist learning theory. But even though this should imply that these textbooks emphasize student improvisation, DeZutter found that improvisational practice was mentioned only briefly in only one textbook.

Based on this content analysis, she concludes that these textbooks present What Makes Good Teachers Great? The focus of Creative Partnerships is to pair working professional artists with arts teachers in schools and have them collaborate in the arts education of students.

One of the activities used with teachers enrolled in DTFP is improv theater, and Lobman quotes from interviews with participating teachers to demonstrate how their conceptions of teaching became more emergent, participatory, and improvisational as a result of participating in these activities.

They begin by noting that all curricula, no matter how structured, necessarily are implemented by specific teachers in specific classrooms, and this implementation has always provided space for creative professional practice.

They propose that teachers approach the lesson plan by considering what can be left fluid and what must remain fixed. The challenge facing all teachers is getting the balance just right.

In a paper, Frederick Erickson was the first scholar to analyze student classroom conversation as a form of improvisation.

Two chapters analyze the use of improvisation with language learners. He provides transcripts of several examples of students improvising in English, but within two different guiding structures that are appropriate to their level of skill.

His first guiding structure is more detailed and constraining, thus providing more support, whereas the second guiding structure is more open and thus more appropriate for slightly more advanced students.

He contextualizes this work within current research and theory in second language learning, showing that these improvisational activities satisfy the best current thinking and research on how to design effective second language learning environments.

He notes the predominance of scripted materials for second language learning, and describes how his exercises provide opportunities for learners to engage in more authentic and creative uses of English, yet within the guiding structure provided by the improv game.

His chapter describes six different games he has used, and demonstrates how differing levels of structure help teachers resolve three conflicts between improv rules and formal language learning environments that are related to the learning paradox.

She compares this facilitative role to a teacher designing a learning experience. Fournier considers both the dance company and the classroom to be a learning community; in both, the role of the teacher or choreographer is to guide a group learning process, providing appropriate structures while being sensitive to novelty that emerges.

The Curriculum Paradox Designed instruction always has a desired learning outcome. Creative teaching requires the development of appropriate lesson plans and curricula that guide learners in the most optimal way while allowing space for creative improvisation.

She examines a specific implementation of the Making Meaning reading comprehension curriculum in the Boston Public Schools. Sassi presents this as an instance of a broader category of relatively scripted curricula, including Success For All SFA , which nonetheless build in time for student inquiry, group work, and dialogue.

Sassi demonstrates that even in the presence of a relatively high degree of curricular structure, learning nonetheless occurs through a form of disciplined improvisation.

Susan Jurow and Laura Creighton McFadden argue that the goal of science instruction is to aid students in mastering the central issues and practices of the discipline of science.

They draw on observational data they gathered in two classrooms at an elementary laboratory school, and they present two cases of teachers engaging in lessons that were structured around the curricular goals for science instruction that are set by national and local standards.

They demonstrate that the enactment of those curricular goals was flexible and the teacher necessarily improvised within those curricular structures.

The paradox faced by science teachers is one 20 Sawyer of allowing children opportunities to creatively articulate and explore their own emerging ideas, while providing the guiding structures that will lead those students into the appropriate disciplinary practices and understandings of science.

They provide transcripts from two classrooms, one with elementary school children in Canada and one with high school students in England.

Teaching in this way requires disciplined improvisation. And yet, schools are complex organizations with many structures and constraints; these structures serve important functions and cannot simply be abandoned.

Effective creative learning involves teachers and students improvising together, collaboratively, within the structures provided by the curriculum and the teachers.

But researchers have found that children need be to taught how to engage in effective collaborative discussion e. The performing arts are fundamentally ensemble art forms.

Music educators are increasingly realizing the importance of using musical collaboration in their classes Sawyer, c.

Theater improvisation can provide a uniquely valuable opportunity for students to learn how to participate in collaborative learning groups.

Many schools have already transformed their curricula to emphasize creative teaching. However, these transformations have often been occurring in the wealthiest countries and the wealthiest school districts, potentially leading to a knowledge society that is run by children of privilege.

In many large U. References Azmitia, M. Staudinger Eds. Barrell, B. Classroom artistry. Bereiter, C. Education and mind in the knowledge age.

Berliner, D. In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Ways of thinking about students and classrooms by more and less experienced teachers. Calderhead Ed.

The California beginning teacher study. Berliner, P. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Boote, D. Borko, H. Bourdieu, P.

Outline of a theory of practice. Bransford, J. Brown, M. Chi, M. The nature of expertise. Clark, C. Research on teacher thinking. Craft, A. Creativity in education.

Cremin, T. Pedagogy and possibility thinking in the early years. Darling-Hammond, L. Dawe, H. The practice of everyday life.

Original work published Eisner, E. The art and craft of teaching. Erickson, F. Wilkinson Ed. Ericsson, K.

The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. New York: Cambridge University Press. Gardner, H. Five minds for the future.

Haworth, L. Hill, J. Housner, L. Ingersoll, R. Joubert, M. Craft, B. Leibling Eds. Leinhardt, G. The cognitive skill of teaching. Mayer, R. Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning?

The case for guided methods of instruction. McLaren, P. Mehan, H. Learning lessons. Bos, H. Holtappels Eds. Olson, D. Psychological theory and educational reform.

Palincsar, A. Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Spence, J. Foss Eds. Park-Fuller, L. Partnership for 21st Century Skills.

The intellectual and policy foundations of the 21st century skills framework. Pineau, E. Rogoff, B. Cognition as a collaborative process.

Siegler Eds. Rubin, L. Artistry in teaching. Sarason, S. Teaching as a performing art. Sawyer, R. Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences.

The new science of learning. New York: Basic Books. Shavelson, R. Smith, R. Is teaching really a performing art?

Timpson, W. Torrance, E. Interscholastic futuristic creative problem solving. Trilling, B. Yinger, R. Routines in teacher planning. A study of teacher planning.

By this I mean that we should liken teaching to other explicitly improvisational professions such as unscripted theater and jazz music, where conscious efforts are made to develop improvisational expertise, and where a body of knowledge has been built up for doing so.

This reconceptualization of teacher expertise will be an important move toward supporting the kinds of teaching that are needed to meet the demands of our society in the twenty-first century.

The assertion that good teaching involves improvisation is a statement of the obvious to any experienced classroom teacher. But improvisation has rarely been an explicit part of conversations about teaching, and because we do not talk much about our improvisation, we limit our ability as a profession to advance our knowledge and capacity for improvising well.

Unlike other improvisational professions, we do not have a well-elaborated, shared notion of what constitutes excellent improvisation, nor do we know much about how teachers learn to improvise or what teacher educators can do to facilitate that learning.

Yet, as I explain later in the chapter, many scholars In R. This chapter focuses on teacher education because these programs are important sites for conversations about teaching; this is where we can pass on to our next generation of teachers ideas about what we hope teaching will be.

I identify two barriers to the reconceptualization of teaching as disciplined improvisation. First, I show that few teacher educators have thought systematically about the role of improvisation in teaching or have adopted it as a learning goal for their students.

Second, I argue that teacher education students do not naturally come to the view that teaching should be improvisational, due to certain deeply held, culturally based beliefs about teaching that I identify in this chapter.

To overcome these two barriers, I describe how familiar methods in teacher education can be easily adapted for the purpose of helping future teachers understand the improvisational nature of teaching.

I begin the chapter by explaining the importance of an improvisational view of teaching to the educational needs of the twenty-first century.

I then discuss what we can expect to gain by viewing teaching as not just improvisational, but as professionally improvisational.

Next, I examine how improvisation currently figures in conversations within teacher education, as evidenced by a content analysis of methods textbooks; this content analysis helps us understand why the improvisational dimension of teaching may be less obvious to pre-service teachers than it is to those with experience in the classroom.

In the final section of the chapter, I propose strategies that teacher educators can use to help their students think productively and professionally about the improvisation that teachers do.

I join with other authors in the volume in arguing for a new conception of teacher expertise that includes expertise in improvisation. However, I focus on teacher expertise as seen not through the eyes of scholars but through the eyes of pre-service teachers.

I examine the tension between teaching viewed as a form of professional improvisation and the planning-centric view of teaching that teacher education students often bring to their programs, and that those programs implicitly reinforce.

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Am bot der italienische Club U. Palermo USD , um den Spieler zu verpflichten. Dieses Angebot lehnte Shakhtar Donetsk umgehend ab.

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Tore Vincelot Vor allem der Anfang ist hart. Fifa 17 Bot Video They have told me that the more people that spread it, the more traction it gets, the higher the priority above things like game play mechanics etc.

Be ready for Fifa Der neue Teammanager Nathan Jones, der zuvor bei Luton Town wegen "anhaltender Erfolglosigkeit" beurlaubt wurde, steht vor einer sehr schwierigen Mission!

Ob ich hier morgen noch Teammanager bin? Eine neue Funktion nannte sich "Complete Dribbling". Tabellenplatz und mussten uns die Aufstiegsspiele im Fernsehen angucken.

Platz wollen wir unbedingt halten oder sogar noch weiter nach oben. Schuldenabbau usw. Am Ende Stats Torschüsse.

Mostrare soltanto commenti con "mi piace" Mostrare solo fonti. Ich musste jetzt endgültig mal click here den Slidern herumschrauben, denn das Spiel wurde immer unspielbarer gegen die CPU!

They just don't care as long as they keep making link. How much just click for source you here Judging by this guys name this will be one of the bots they use to continuously run to farm coins to then sell on for real money.

I started playing FUT with Fifa I'm saying, the people that decide what get's worked on don't care for it. Its unacceptable, you guys are paying the same and getting a worse experience, EA has to do something about cheating in this game PCI haven't played on pc since FIFA 04, but I had a blast, I downloaded mods that had every stadium from the Serie A back then, it was awesome Want to Beste Spielothek in finden to the discussion?

Doubtful anything will be done but hope it happens some day. Carlisle United Hatte ihn erworben als die Karte erschienen ist, sie hatte damals 1,9 Mio Coins gekostet.

Post selezionati:. So wirken die meistens im Herbst erscheinenden Spiele auch noch einige Monate später aktuell. Auch bei den ganz jungen Profis müssen wir überlegen, ob sie es schaffen könnten- wenn nicht lassen wir sie ziehen.

Zitat von Frisbee Mein Account war nicht vorbelastet. Die Spiele werden vor allem über die Ballbeherrschung im More info entschieden.

Isa GГјnther Jutta Und Isa GГјnther Video

Lustige Bilder. Das doppelte Lottchen Blu-ray. Klose, R. Kaiser, M. FuГџballspieler Englisch Sie einmal ein Ersatzteil nicht bei uns finden sollten. So far, The Wiz a minority of all works could be analyzed. Am Günther Dellbrügger wendet seinen Blick auf die Bereiche i…. There, Spielsucht Formen are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

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